Friday, March 4, 2011

How to check for SQL injection vulnerabilities

Securing your website and web applications from SQL Injection involves a three-part process:
  1. Analysing the present state of security present by performing a thorough audit of your website and web applications for SQL Injection and other hacking vulnerabilities.
  2. Making sure that you use coding best practice santising your web applications and all other components of your IT infrastructure.
  3. Regularly performing a web security audit after each change and addition to your web components.
Furthermore, the principles you need to keep in mind when checking for SQL Injection and all other hacking techniques are the following: “Which parts of a website we thought are secure are open to hack attacks?” and “what data can we throw at an application to cause it to perform something it shouldn’t do?”.
Checking for SQL Injection vulnerabilities involves auditing your website and web applications. Manual vulnerability auditing is complex and very time-consuming. It also demands a high-level of expertise and the ability to keep track of considerable volumes of code and of all the latest tricks of the hacker’s ‘trade’.
The best way to check whether your web site and applications are vulnerable to SQL injection attacks is by using an automated and heuristic web vulnerability scanner.
An automated web vulnerability scanner crawls your entire website and should automatically check for vulnerabilities to SQL Injection attacks. It will indicate which URLs/scripts are vulnerable to SQL injection so that you can immediately fix the code. Besides SQL injection vulnerabilities a web application scanner will also check for Cross site scripting and other web vulnerabilities.
Signature-Matching versus Heuristic Scanning for SQL InjectionWhereas many organisations understand the need for automating and regularising web auditing, few appreciate the necessity of scanning both off-the-shelf AND bespoke web applications. The general misconception is these custom web applications are not vulnerable to hacking attacks. This arises more out of the “it can never happen to me” phenomenon and the confidence website owners place in their developers.
A search on Google News returned 240 matches on the keyword “SQL Injection” (at time of writing). Secunia and SecuObs report dozens of vulnerabilities of known web applications on a daily basis. Yet, examples of hacked custom applications are rarely cited in the media. This is because it is only the known organisations (e.g. Choicepoint, AT&T, PayPal) that hit the headlines over the past few months.
It is critical to understand that custom web applications are probably the most vulnerable and definitely attract the greatest number of hackers simply because they know that such applications do not pass through the rigorous testing and quality assurance processes of off-the-shelf ones.
This means that scanning a custom web application with only a signature-based scanner will not pinpoint vulnerabilities to SQL Injection and any other hacking techniques.
Establishing and testing against a database of signatures of vulnerabilities for known applications is not enough. This is passive auditing because it will only cover off-the-shelf applications and any vulnerabilities to new hacking techniques will not be discovered. In addition, signature matching would do little when a hacker launches an SQL Injection attack on your custom web applications. Hack attacks are not based on signature file testing – hackers understand that known applications, systems and servers are being updated and secured constantly and consistently by respective vendors. It is custom applications that are the proverbial honey pot.
It is only a handful of products that deploy rigorous and heuristic technologies to identify the real threats. True automated web vulnerability scanning almost entirely depends on (a) how well your site is crawled to establish its structure and various components and links, and (b) on the ability of the scanner to leverage intelligently the various hacking methods and techniques against your web applications.
It would be useless to detect the known vulnerabilities of known applications alone. A significant degree of heuristics is involved in detecting vulnerabilities since hackers are extremely creative and launch their attacks against bespoke web applications to create maximum impact.

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